Thursday, March 8, 2018

Look for Beech Leaf Disease

photo by Carrie Ewing

We Need Your Help Spotting This Disease! Look for signs of beech leaf disease using this guide. Although the causal agent hasn't been identified yet, this disease has been contributing to American beech decline and mortality across northeastern Ohio, northwestern Pennsylvania, and southwestern New York.

It has also been found in Chautauqua County in southwestern New York and along the north shore of Lake Erie in Ontario. BLD affects American beech (Fagus grandifolia), European beech (F. sylvatica), Oriental beech (F. orientalis), and possibly Chinese beech (F. engleriana) and Korean beech (F. crenata).

Very early symptoms include dark striped bands between lateral veins of leaves and reduced leaf size. As symptoms progress, aborted buds, reduced leaf production, and premature leaf drop lead to an overall reduction in canopy cover, ultimately resulting in death of sapling-sized trees within 2-5 years.

Contact your local forest health specialist, State Extension Service, or State Departments of Agriculture and Forestry if you observe symptoms of beech leaf disease.

Monday, February 26, 2018

Timber Harvesting Cautions

By Allyson Muth, Penn State Center for Private Forests

The recent warm, wet weather is making for poor logging conditions; however, it appears that timber buyers are busy looking for standing timber. Based on the calls we’ve been getting from landowners wanting to know the dollar value of their trees, owners are looking at trees in a different way than usual. Unsolicited knocks on the door from someone offering to buy a landowner’s trees always raises red flags. Yes, it may be an efficiency of scale – people are working in the area and wouldn’t have to move equipment far – but it also means you have something of economic value. Moreover, if you’ve never thought of your trees with dollar symbols in your eyes, it can be a surprise. You must use care that any activities you undertake don’t compromise the reasons you own and care for your land.

Jim Stiehler, now passed but formerly with the DCNR Bureau of Forestry, used to say, “A timber harvest represents the best time to make a positive change on your woodland; but it’s also the time when the most damage can be done.” As with many things forestry, there are many myths associated with timber harvesting that can lead to bad outcomes. Let’s address some in hopes of getting to a more positive outcome.

Those trees need to be cut. Unless they present a risk to life or property, or an insect or disease is in the area, no tree ever needs to be cut immediately. Sure, trees have economic and biological maturity, but in a resource with a lifespan many decades beyond our own, the time frame for decision-making is correspondingly longer. You have time to make decisions that do well by your land.

Get those big trees out of the way so those little trees can grow get bigger. Unless you’ve taken action to get the next generation of young trees growing in the forest, for the most part across Pennsylvania, those big trees and little trees are the same age. They are likely different species even, which would account for different growth rates (for example oaks and maples), or they may be the winners within a species due to micro-site or genetic superiority. By the same rules that a farmer keeps his prize bull around for breeding, why would you want to cut the best growing trees without ensuring that their progeny are there to replace them? And, as with most of Pennsylvania’s trees of an average age between 80 and 120 years old, we know at that age many trees lose their ability to respond well to increased light. They aren’t going to grow quickly and recapture a site – instead the light can cause stress and you’ll lose more trees in the process.

We are just going to do a “select cut.” As with the knock on the door, anytime the phrase “select cut” enters the conversation, red flags and warning lights should go off. The first question you should ask is what are your going to “select” or better yet, what are you going to leave me? In the manner in which it has come to be used, a “select cut” typically means the best trees are removed and the worst are left – take the best and leave the rest. Diameter limit cuts fall in the same red flag area – cutting all trees above a certain diameter. Within a species, this could remove the best growing trees of that group. Across species, because different tree species have different growth rates, this could remove an entire species from your forest. We hear about this happening a lot in oak and cherry stands. With our forest’s past history and these species growth rates, oaks and cherries are often the largest trees. And if you love wildlife or hunting, it makes little sense to remove one of the largest food sources for insects (feed the birds) and wildlife. The maples and birch left aren’t going to fill that void.

Forestry’s not complicated. I can do this on my own. It’s been said that forestry is not rocket science; it’s a lot harder (I will admit, some forester probably said this). The reality is that a forest is a complex system. There are professional service providers who can help, called consulting foresters. If ever a timber harvest is considered, we strongly encourage landowners to have someone to advocate for you, your values, and your long-term goals for the woodland. Consulting foresters can prescribe management activities that will best mesh with your woods and what you value. They can mark timber for sale to help carry out that activity. They can bid out the sale. And they can monitor the harvest to ensure good work is done. Yes, trees can bring dollars to your pockets, but they also bring you (and the rest of us) so much more. Having a professional who can interpret the story of your forest, help you understand what you have on your land, and help guide you in the process to move the forest to a place you hope it can go is an asset to you. As with other professionals, there are costs involved. But more often than not, these professionals ensure a more positive outcome. As with all professions, there are scrupulous and unscrupulous players in forestry. Get recommendations; ask for references.

There is always time to make well-informed decisions about the long-term care of your woods. Purchase of standing timber may be picking up right now, but make sure you understand the actions and potential outcomes before you make the decision to sell trees. Ask for help. Educate yourself. The trees and forest will be better for it.

A great resource to get you started is a Penn State publication titled, “Forestry with Confidence.” You can find it online and review or download a copy. Another great resource from the University of Wisconsin is called "Conducting a Successful Timber Sale." I would suggest reviewing both of thse resources in addition to contacting your DCNR, Bureau of Forestry, State Service Forester before proceeding with any timber sale.