Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Now is the Time to Destroy Spotted Lanternfly Eggs and Report Your Efforts

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, now found in portions of 5 counties in SE Pennsyllvania (Berks, Bucks, Chester, Lehigh, and Montgomery) lays egg masses of 30-50 eggs wherever there's a flat surface. Any smooth-trunked tree, stone, or vertical smooth surface can provide a potential host for eggs masses. Man-made items like vehicles, campers, yard furniture, or any other items stored outside and easily transported, are suitable sites for egg laying and help it spread quickly.

Therefore, a general quarantine over any area found to harbor the spotted lanternfly means that any material or object that can spread the pest cannot be moved. For the most current quarantine information visit the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture's Spotted Lanternfly site.

People can reduce the populations of spotted lanternfly on their properties by killing the overwintering eggs. Residents of the infested area are encouraged to inspect their trees and other objects for spotted lanternfly egg masses, and destroy them before they hatch.  Experts expect the eggs will start to hatch in early May, so late March through April is a great time to do this.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Epidemic Effecting Landscape Trees

I saw it just today, landscape crews hard at work mulching trees, or should I say over-mulching trees.  Mulch is piled against the trunk of the tree rather than spread out in a thin layer.  This method of mulching, often referred to as "volcano" mulching slowly impacts tree health and vigor.  Trees would be much better off having the same amount of mulch spread out across a larger area.  This would promote proper root growth and tree vigor.  Below is a news release from one of my colleagues Vinnie Cotrone, Extension Urban Forester, addressing this issue.

Epidemic Effecting Landscape Trees 
There is an epidemic spreading throughout the state and country that is slowly killing trees and shrubs in our landscapes.  No, it isn’t another disease or insect we accidentally imported from another country like Asian Longhorned Beetle which is killing trees in NYC and Chicago or Dutch Elm Disease which changed our landscapes in the 1960’s and 70’s.  And unlike some of these imported pests, this epidemic can be prevented very easily.

Don't over-mulch and create mulch "volcanoes!"
This epidemic is caused by misapplication of mulch around our trees and shrubs.  “We are over-mulching our trees and shrubs to death” says Vincent Cotrone, Penn State Urban Forester and certified arborist.  “Mulching is a terrific way to add organic matter and nutrients, conserve soil moisture, and prevent lawn mowers from injuring trees and shrubs, but it is just being put on way too thick and piled too high on trunks and stems.” 
When mulches are put on too thick and piled against the stems of trees and shrubs, they begin to suffocate roots and create a moist environment in which opportunistic decay fungi such as Phytophora, Armillaria, and Leptographium attack the trunk and roots, causing root rots, a decline in plant health, crown dieback, and tree failures.  Besides causing the roots and stems to rot, over-mulching prevents the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of stems; can lead to rodent chewing and stem girdling; nutrient deficiencies and the production of toxic organic acids; and often causes roots to grow up into thick mulch, only to dry out in hot summers, or form girdling roots that encircle and the trunk.
“It seems to be fashionable these days for landscapers and homeowners to create these mountainous mulch “volcanoes” at the base of trees” says Cotrone.  “Unfortunately this continues because there is a lack of knowledge about how trees really grow and the harm caused by this practice.”  A quick walk in the woods will illustrate how trees have a natural flare where their trunks meet the soil (visible even on young trees).  “It is important that we not cover that flare with soil or mulch” says Cotrone.  “Spread the mulch out in a layer that is no thicker than 3-4 inches, and don’t pile it up on the trunks of trees and stems of shrubs”. 
A properly mulched tree!
Mulching your trees and shrubs can improve soils and grow healthy plants, but too much of a good thing can be harmful.  So take a closer look at your mulch or your landscapers work this summer and make sure you don’t have mulch-mountains or “volcanoes” in your landscape.  Let’s stop this epidemic before it kills more trees.

For more information on mulching visit the following websites:
Penn State Extension: Planting Ornamentals

Trees Are Good: Proper Mulching Techniques

Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Pennsylvania Forest Landowner Conference

After a long silence during the recent recession when the demand for hardwood lumber tanked, the log trucks are rolling again. Loads of beautiful American white ash are being salvaged, unfortunate victims of the emerald ash borer. Ash wood is white and quite dense, strong, and straight-grained. It’s been the timber of choice for baseball bats and tool handles; it makes good furniture and flooring. We hate to see the woodpeckers working on its bark and to see it disappear from our woods.

I’d like to suggest to folks who have sold their ash trees that they use this as an opportunity to think about the future of their woods. What can you do now to insure that at least part of that resource is still there for you? Would you like to use this opportunity to manage your woods as a future/different timber resource, or for firewood, for wildlife or deer, or especially for your children or grand kids? If so, plan to investigate the upcoming statewide Penn State Forest Landowners Conference: Enriching Woodland Values.

Held in Altoona’s Blair County Convention Center March 24 and 25, it’s a biennial (every two years) gathering of woodland owners from across the state and beyond, with a phenomenal set of professional presenters and a wide array of topics. Attendees are sure to find something that interests them: select from nearly 100 presentations, multiple field tours, extended-learning workshops, a full hall of exhibitors, and perhaps best of all, time to compare notes with other landowners and the opportunity to corner the experts with your personal questions.

It may seem a long way to Altoona, PA, but it is right down I-99. Get a car-load together, take your family, assemble your hunting buddies, grab a neighbor. The trip will be worth every penny when you come back and look at your own woods with new eyes, understanding, and intention. We’ve extracted the value of ash, now it’s time to put some value back into our woods. Pennsylvania holds the most valuable hardwood resource in the United States, and you are the steward for your part of it.

There is still time to register: You can register online through today, March 14; telephone registrations will be taken through next Monday, March 20, by calling 1-877-778-2937; and after that walk-ins will be accepted at the Convention Center.

Nancy Baker

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Invasive Species Highlight - Oriental Bittersweet

We often hear Kudzu vine referred to as the vine that ate the south. Well, we may have the vine that eats Pennsylvania, Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatusis). It is becoming more and more of a problem, a problem that is not easily solved.

Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture
As I sat on my favorite deer stand, in the woods of central Pennsylvania, this past hunting season I began to pick them out. The climbing vine and the orange seed pods of Oriental bittersweet were easily recognized through my binoculars. I mentally marked the vines locations with the intent of coming back after the season and cutting them at the ground line to free the trees from its strangling grip. I plan to treat the freshly cut stumps with a systemic herbicide to prevent re-sprouting.

Learn to identify this damaging invasive vine before it takes over your woodlot…..if it hasn’t already. It is important to get control of this vine early before it has a chance to spread, and it will spread. Those bright orange berries found on the female vines are readily eaten by birds and transported great distances. Once under control, a scouting and maintenance program is an absolute must.

Oriental bittersweet is a deciduous, climbing, woody vine that can grow up to 60 feet in length and up to four inches in diameter. Native to Korea, China, and Japan, it was introduced in the 1860s as an ornamental. It quickly naturalized in many areas. Bittersweet rapidly grows into the tops of trees, overtoping existing vegetation, shading and eventually killing saplings and trees. Vines can cause structural damage by girdling branches and trunks and even toppling trees.

The finely toothed, round leaves are glossy and alternately
arranged. The plant flowers in the spring and bears clusters of small greenish flowers that emerge from the leaf axils. The globular green to yellow fruit ripens in the fall. Upon ripening, the orange fruit splits open revealing three red-orange, fleshy berries. The berries remain on the vine through the winter. The seed remains viable in the soil for years.

Oriental bittersweet grows in fields and woodlands, around old home sites, along roadsides, and hedgerows. It thrives in moist to semi-moist soils but has also been found growing vigorously in sand dunes along coastal areas. This vine tolerates shade, but prefers full sun. Dense, smothering stands may form under the right light and moisture conditions.

Mechanical control, such as pulling or mowing, can be used to remove light infestations of small plants. When soil moisture is high, vines can be pulled by hand. Take care to remove all root fragments as bittersweet will re-sprout. In old fields, mowing two to three times a year stimulates root suckering.

To successfully control infestations of this vine a two-step approach is recommended. First, remove the aerial portions by “window” cutting the vines any time of year. Window cutting means the vines are cut at eye level and again close to the ground. This allows you to visually see what vines have been cut as you move through an area. It is optional to treat the stumps at this time with a systemic herbicide (e.g., glyphosate) or to leave them. The vines will re-sprout unless an herbicide is applied to the cut stump.

The second step is to treat the re-growth. Even if the stumps were chemically treated the root system will likely send up sprouts. After a growing season, the re-growth will be like a small shrub rather than a climbing vine. The foliage can be successfully managed with an herbicide (e.g. glyphosate or triclopyr amine). For root suckering species, like bittersweet, it is important to treat foliage late in the growing season to enhance herbicide translocation to roots.

It is important not to confuse the invasive Oriental bittersweet vine with its native look-alike, American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens). American bittersweet has flowers and fruits at the ends of its branches, rather than in the axils of the leaves. Because native bittersweet is beneficial, consult a natural resource professional to properly identify bittersweet before implementing control plans.

To view an excellent 4 minute video by the University of Minnesota Extension click on the below link.

For a Penn State Invasive Plant Species Management fact sheet click the below link.