Penn State Extension-Centre County provides this blog as a source of information to the central Pennsylvania forestry community.
Updates and news items on forestry related subjects are posted regularly.
Penn State Forestry Extension has just released the fourth
in a series of Forest Science Fact Sheets. The latest in the series, entitled Backpack Sprayer Calibration Made Easy,
provides in-depth practical information on calibrating backpack sprayers for both
band applications and spot treatments. The fact sheet was written by Dave
Jackson, Penn State Forest Resources Educator, Art Gover, Penn State Wildland
Weed Management and Kimberly Bohn, Penn State Forest Resources Educator.
simply means determining the output of a sprayer so a known amount of spray
solution is applied to a given area. Applicators must know this if they wish to
apply an herbicide at a specific dosage, e.g., ounces or quarts per acre.
Failure to calibrate spray equipment can result in misapplication of
herbicides, repeat applications, damaged non-target plants, excess costs, as
well as environmental concerns.
This fact sheet presents a simplified process of calibrating
a backpack sprayer known as the “ounces to gallons” method. With this method,
the amount of spray, measured in ounces, converts directly to gallons per acre.
Band applications are fixed-width, fixed-speed
applications in which the applicator treats larger, continuous areas of
vegetation. In forestry applications, band treatments are commonly used for
spraying interfering plants such as hay-scented and New York fern. Band applications may also be used to treat weeds along
fence lines and trees planted in rows.
Spot treatments are used to treat discrete targets scattered
about a site, such as a single shrub or patches of continuous vegetation. This
is probably the most common use of a backpack sprayer. This type of treatment
is commonly used when controlling invasive shrubs such as multiflora rose, honeysuckle,
and autumn olive. Calibrating for these types of treatments allows the
applicator to estimate spray coverage so the mix will be effective without
over- or under-applying.
Taking the time to calibrate the application will
ensure the proper dose of herbicide is used. Although calibration represents an
“extra” step and time you feel you may not have, it is not. Applications cannot
be made correctly without first calibrating. Applicators who master calibration gain a valuable skill and take
control of the process rather than simply mimicking instruction that may be
This is a
great opportunity if you’d like to learn more about birds in your woods. The
event is free and happens June 9 and 10 at the University of Pitt, Bradford, PA. The
Appalachian Mountain Joint Venture and Forest Service have been working with
numerous partners (American Bird Conservancy, Ruffed Grouse Society, Audubon
Pennsylvania, PA Game Commission, Natural Resource Conservation Service,
Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and PA Department of Conservation and
Natural Resource) to organize a free, two-day workshop in June for forest
landowners: Working in Your Woods, A Bird's Eye View.
day of the workshop will bring together speakers to present on the following
·Techniques to create healthy forests and help
·Financial incentives and programs available to
·Opportunities to benefit a variety of bird
species, including ruffed grouse, scarlet tanager, wild turkey, cerulean warbler,
American woodcock and many more.
second day of the workshop, participants will visit field sites (transportation
provided) to see the techniques and habitat discussed in day 1 and may have an
opportunity to see birds at a bird banding site (depending on conditions).
See responses below from a number of national forestry organizations concerning President
Trump's announcement that he will tap former Georgia Governor, Sonny Perdue,
to head the Department of Agriculture. It appears most are pleased with this announcement.
SAF CEO Matt Menashes stated:
welcomes the nomination of former Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue to be the
nation's next Secretary of Agriculture. As Georgia's governor, he recognized
the critical importance of managing and sustaining forests as one of Georgia's
precious natural resources, and consistently championed policies that promoted
and supported stewardship and benefited rural communities. SAF's diverse
membership of foresters and other natural resources professionals looks forward
to working with Perdue and landowners to manage and protect these important
private and public forests."
The American Forest Foundation
landowner and avid sportsman, he knows the importance of America's forests,
both public and privately owned, and understands the rural landowners and
communities that work so hard to manage and protect these lands. As governor,
he had an incredible track record of supporting policies at the state level,
that helped landowners large and small to be responsible stewards of the
The National Association of State Foresters
and forests are America's fundamental infrastructure, offering real solutions
to the nation's economic and environmental challenges. By focusing on national
priorities outlined in every state's Forest Action Plan, together with
Secretary Perdue we will continue to efficiently conserve, protect and enhance
America's 'green infrastructure'".
governor of Georgia from 2003 to 2011. He grew up on a farm in Perry, Georgia,
served as a captain in the US Air Force, and later earned a doctorate in
veterinary medicine from the University of Georgia. He's the first cousin of
Sen. David Perdue (R-GA), a member of the Agriculture Committee, which is
tasked with overseeing his confirmation.
hearings have not been scheduled yet but will likely begin soon.
The below article appeared in the Morning Ag Clips today. With Trump being sworn in as president I thought this was a timely article to post. Stay tuned, we will see where it leads. This may directly impact logging in Central Pennsylvania with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listing of the northern long-eared bat as threatened in 2015.
never been used for the rehabilitation of species. It's been used for control
of the land," said House Natural Resources Committee Chairman Rob Bishop.
"We've missed the entire purpose of the Endangered Species Act. It has
see an opportunity to advance broad changes to law.
Mont. — In control of Congress and soon the White House, Republicans are
readying plans to roll back the influence of the Endangered Species Act, one of
the government’s most powerful conservation tools, after decades of complaints
that it hinders drilling, logging and other activities.
past eight years, GOP lawmakers sponsored dozens of measures aimed at
curtailing the landmark law or putting species such as grey wolves and sage
grouse out of its reach. Almost all were blocked by Democrats and the White
House or lawsuits from environmentalists.
the ascension of President-elect Donald Trump, Republicans see an opportunity
to advance broad changes to a law they contend has been exploited by wildlife
advocates to block economic development.
never been used for the rehabilitation of species. It’s been used for control
of the land,” said House Natural Resources Committee Chairman Rob Bishop.
“We’ve missed the entire purpose of the Endangered Species Act. It has been
he “would love to invalidate” the law and would need other lawmakers’
The 1973 act
was ushered though Congress nearly unanimously, in part to stave off extinction
of the national symbol, the bald eagle. Eagle populations have since rebounded,
and the birds were taken off the threatened and endangered list in 2007.
eagles’ place, another emblematic species — the wolf — has emerged as a prime
example of what critics say is wrong with the current law: seemingly endless
litigation that offers federal protection for species long after government
biologists conclude that they have recovered.
on livestock have provoked hostility against the law, which keeps the animals
off-limits to hunting in most states. Other species have attracted similar ire
— Canada lynx for halting logging projects, the lesser prairie chicken for
impeding oil and gas development and salmon for blocking efforts to reallocate
water in California.
proposed by Republicans include placing limits on lawsuits that have been used to
maintain protections for some species and force decisions on others, as well as
adopting a cap on how many species can be protected and giving states a greater
say in the process.
advocates are bracing for changes that could make it harder to add species to
the protected list and to usher them through to recovery. Dozens are due for
decisions this year, including the Pacific walrus and the North American
wolverine, two victims of potential habitat loss due to climate change.
that gets in the way of a congressional initiative or some kind of development
will be clearly at risk,” said Jamie Rappaport Clark, president of Defenders of
Wildlife and a former Fish and Wildlife Service director under President Bill
Clinton. “The political lineup is as unfavorable to the Endangered Species Act
as I can remember.”
1,600 plants and animals in the U.S. are now shielded by the law. Hundreds more
are under consideration for protections. Republicans complain that fewer than
70 have recovered and had protections lifted.
tension just continues to expand,” said Jason Shogren, professor of natural
resource conservation at the University of Wyoming. “Like a pressure cooker,
every now and then, you’ve got to let out some steam or it’s really going to
reconvened last week with two critics of the law holding key Senate leadership
positions — Wyoming Sen. John Barrasso as the incoming chairman of the
Committee on Environment and Public Works and Alaska Sen. Lisa Murkowski as
chairwoman of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
Mike Danylak said Barrasso will seek to “strengthen and modernize” the
management of endangered species but offered no specifics.
predecessor, Sen. Jim Inhofe of Oklahoma, suggested in an interview that one
species should be removed from the list every time another is added. Another
Republican, Alaska Sen. Dan Sullivan, said he wants to limit applications for
protections to one species at a time.
House, Rep. Tom McClintock of California, chairman of the House Subcommittee on
Federal Lands, said he wants to ease logging restrictions in national forests
to reduce tree density blamed for catastrophic wildfires.
too, have been frustrated with the law: Minnesota Rep. Collin Peterson and two
other Democrats joined 11 Republicans last week on a bill to end protections
for wolves in the Great Lakes and Wyoming.
striking a few key words from the law, it could be transformed from a tool to
protect huge areas of habitat for imperiled species into little more than
limits on hunting for protected animals, said J.B. Ruhl, a Vanderbilt
University law professor considered a leading expert on the act.
position is unclear. A strong advocate for energy development, he has lamented
environmental policies he says hinder drilling. But his appointment of Montana
Rep. Ryan Zinke as Interior secretary was seen by some conservationists as a
signal that Trump will support protections for public lands to the benefit of
fish and wildlife.
transition team did not respond to requests for comment. The incoming
administration already has immigration, the health care law repeal and
infrastructure improvements atop its agenda.
administration or Congress wants to gut the law, “they certainly can do it,”
Vermont Law School professor Patrick Parenteau said. “The real question with
the Endangered Species Act is where does it rank?”
and senior Obama administration officials argue the law’s success is best
measured by extinctions avoided — for 99 per cent of protected species,
including black-footed ferrets, whooping cranes, American crocodiles and
hundreds of others.
lot of evidence that some species are conservation-reliant,” Ruhl said.
Political fights over certain species have dragged out for decades, he added,
because recovering them from “the brink of extinction is a lot harder than we