Thursday, February 20, 2020

Trillion Trees Act Introduced

Some interesting news to share, on Wednesday, February 12th, Representative Bruce Westerman (R-AR-4) introduced the Trillion Trees Act (HR 5859). This legislation supports the U.N. Initiative to plant one trillion trees globally by 2050 by planting more trees in the U.S., incentivizing the use of wood products to store carbon, improving carbon storage through active forest management, and directing the EPA to establish policies reflecting the carbon neutrality of biomass. The legislation also directs the Secretary of Agriculture to establish targets for increased wood growth on domestic forests and create a reforestation task group that will advise the Secretary on wood growth targets. A summary of the legislation can be found here. Westerman was joined by nine Republican original cosponsors of the Trillion Trees Act.

Friday, February 14, 2020

C-D-L: An Acronym for Successfully Regenerating Hardwood Forests

By Dave Jackson, Forest Resources Educator, Penn State Extension

BELLEFONTE, PA--Many factors affect our ability to successfully regenerate and sustain forests. Competing vegetation, high deer impact, and light reaching the forest floor, referred to as C-D-L. Successful forest regeneration depends on addressing these three main factors. Joe Harding, the Penn State Forest Land Management Director, considers each factor when examining a forest stand. His prescription for treatment depends upon what he wants to accomplish and the problems he sees. The prescription then guides the management of the area. Joe explains, “If woodland owners follow this simple formula, C-D-L, they can be successful in managing their forests.”
Competing vegetation interferes with the establishment and growth of desirable regeneration - seedlings and sprouts. Common problem plants are beech, striped maple, eastern hophornbeam, hayscented fern, and numerous invasive plants; however, there are many others that can be problematic. The abundance of these undesirable plants has increased over time for a couple of reasons. First, they are low on the deer browse preference list. Where deer impact is high, these less-preferred browse species can dominate forest understories. Second, many of these species are tolerant of shade and grow well in shady understory conditions. They are often well established in mature forests.
Like weeding a garden, controlling interfering plants is imperative to successfully regenerate hardwood forests. Control measures can include several options. Competing trees and shrubs can simply be cut; however, this often results in the plant re-sprouting. Successful control is most often achieved using herbicides labeled for brush control in forests. Researchers have studied different active ingredients, rates, and time of year to develop safe and effective application prescriptions to control competing and invasive plant problems. Certified applicators are available to make herbicide applications for woodland owners.  
Deer browsing impacts forest regeneration in several ways. When deer densities exceed habitat carrying capacity, deer impact the ability of forests to regenerate desirable tree species. Selective deer browsing reduces seedling numbers, surviving seedlings are smaller, and the species composition is shifted to less preferred species, i.e., species deer don’t like to eat. Unfortunately, desirable timber species such as maple, oak, hickory, and yellow poplar are high on the food preference list and can be completely browsed out of forest understories when deer impact is high.
It is essential to control deer populations to maintain a balance with habitat conditions. Until that balance is reached it may be necessary to exclude deer from areas, using deer exclusion fences, for years until desired regeneration is above the deer’s reach. For example, erecting an eight-foot woven wire fence around a cutting unit may be the best option to control high deer impact. In addition to fencing, landowners may consider using the Deer Management Assistance Program or DMAP. DMAP allows landowners to harvest additional antlerless deer on their property during regular hunting seasons.
Lastly, it is necessary to understand the light requirements of desired regeneration. Most desirable timber species such as black cherry, white ash, yellow poplar, hickory, and black walnut are intolerant of shade, meaning they grow best in full sunlight. All oak species are intermediate in shade tolerance; they grow well in the middle ranges of light availability. Sugar maple, basswood, and hemlock are shade tolerant; they can compete well in fully shaded conditions. 
The tree species you are managing for dictate the type of regeneration harvests recommended. When managing for shade intolerant trees, species with high light requirements, practices that let large amounts of sunlight to the forest floor are preferred. These practices include clearcuts (ONLY if advance regeneration is present or for species like aspen that regenerate from root sprouts), shelterwood harvests, and seed tree cuts. Selectively harvesting individual mature trees from the forest canopy allows only small amounts of light to reach the forest floor and will likely result in the regeneration of shade tolerant species.

C-D-L certainly involves investments - planning, money, and time. Failing to address all three components, competing vegetation, deer, and light, can lead to inadequate desirable regeneration and unsustainable conditions. In summary, if competing vegetation is controlled, deer impact is kept low, and the light tolerances of the desired tree species are taken into consideration, you will likely be successful in establishing and sustaining new forests.    

For more on C-D-L practices, see the Penn State Extension Forest Science Fact Sheet entitled: Regenerating Hardwood Forests: Managing Competing Plants, Deer, and Light. It can be found online at:

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Update on Waters of the US Regulation

The Environmental Protection Agency released its final rule defining “Waters of the US” (WOTUS) over which EPA will have regulatory jurisdiction. The final regulation excludes from EPA jurisdiction a number of water features, including the following of particular importance to private forest management:

Ephemeral streams, defined as flowing only in direct response to precipitation,
Manmade ditches that do not flow into a regulated water, and
Wetlands that do not touch a regulated water of the US.

The effect of these exclusions is that the listed water features will NOT, by themselves, subject timberland to EPA Clean Water Act permit requirements governing such things as the aerial application of pesticides. The wetlands exclusion will also significantly strengthen the application of “normal silviculture” permit exemption for forested wetlands. The text of the final rule can be found here.

2-13-20 PA Forest Products Association

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Forest Landowners Guide to Tree Planting Success

Photo: D. Jackson
Tree planting time is here.  Most often, forests regenerate and old fields grow up in trees without our intervention. Sometimes the best plan is simply to monitor and support the natural growth of new trees, especially in our hardwood forests.

The Penn State Extension publication entitled Forest Landowners Guide to Tree PlantingSuccess provides some information that can help you protect emerging and desired seedlings that have naturally occurred. However, planting trees can accelerate the natural progression or succession from field to forest or enrich a newly regenerating forest with an uncommon species.

This publication focuses on the values and methods of establishing wooded areas on rural property. It begins with suggestions to help analyze the planting site and select appropriate tree species, then provide guidelines for preparing the site and the planting process, and finally, offers advice on maintaining and supporting the seedlings as they mature.